- Tamminga, C. A. Schizophrenia. Merck Manual Professional Version (2018). Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/schizophrenia-and-related-disorders/schizophrenia#v39692526.
Negative Symptoms: Getting to the Specifics
Negative symptoms, a core symptom domain in schizophrenia, are described as a lessening or absence of normal behaviors and functions related to either motivation and interest, or emotional expression.
|Negative symptom dimensions|
|Primary||Cause factor: schizophrenia, core symptom|
|Secondary||Cause factor: other symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, environment|
|Prominent||Intensity factor: more negative symptoms than positive symptoms|
|Predominant||Intensity factor: high level of negative symptoms, low positive symptoms|
|Persistent||Time factor: present for more than 6 months – 1 year|
- Mucci, A., Merlotti, E., Üçok, A., Aleman, A. & Galderisi, S. Primary and persistent negative symptoms: Concepts, assessments and neurobiological bases. Schizophr. Res. 186, 19–28 (2017).
- Carpenter, W. T., Heinrichs, D. W. & Alphs, L. D. Treatment of negative symptoms. Schizophr. Bull. 11, 440–452 (1985).
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Markers of Inflammation and Infection in Schizophrenia
Cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation and infections in schizophrenia and affective disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Challenge of Diagnosing Negative Symptoms
Primary and secondary negative symptoms may be the most important distinction in the negative symptom lexicon because of their different clinical implications.
- Kirkpatrick, B., Buchanan, R. W., Ross, D. E. & Carpenter, J. A separate disease within the syndrome of schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 58, 165–171 (2001).
- Galderisi, S., Mucci, A., Buchanan, R. W. & Arango, C. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: new developments and unanswered research questions. The Lancet Psychiatry 5, 664–677 (2018).
- Kirkpatrick, B., Fenton, W. S., Carpenter, W. T. & Marder, S. R. The NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement on negative symptoms. Schizophr. Bull. 32, 214–219 (2006).
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Selection of Schizophrenia Rating Scales
Rating scales help with monitoring the severity of symptoms in schizophrenia. Up until the 1980s, researchers focused on the positive symptoms, but later on they switched to both positive and negative symptoms.1
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- Andreasen, University of Iowa, 1984
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The Burden of Schizophrenia
Despite being a disorder with relatively low prevalence, schizophrenia is ranked among the top 25 leading causes of disability1. Even with best practice treatment, outcomes are often suboptimal given the complexity of the disorder and its wide-ranging consequences.
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